2A18 Abstracts 2017

Below is a list of abstracts by second-year students in the Integrated Science Program:

ORAL PRESENTATIONS – 2A18 – APRIL 4, 2017

GRAHAM JOHNSTONE AND JONAS YEUNG – MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MAGNETIC ANOMALIES AT MID-OCEAN RIDGES

Continental drift is a significant component of the dynamic model of Earth’s crust, first proposed by Harry Hess in the 1960’s. Early evidence for continental drift is was seafloor spreading at mid-ocean ridges. As new ocean crust is formed at a divergent plate margin, it creates a magnetization profile which records the history of Earth’s magnetic poles. The predictions of magnetic anomalies through mathematical modelling support the theory of continental drift. The objective of this project was to explore a model which would provide useful information such as seafloor spreading rates and a timescale of magnetic reversals. The first step in deriving the model was to isolate the scalar anomaly from the magnetic field of Earth using IGRF data. The second step was to account for seafloor spreading by using the boundary conditions of the magnetic potential function and perform an inverse Fourier transform using Cauchy-Residue Theorem to obtain the potential function of the magnetic field. The last step was to calculate magnetic anomaly from the change in magnetic field, which was obtained from the gradient of the potential function. The model provided a trace of the magnetic anomaly with respect to distance from the mid-ocean ridge, seafloor spreading rates, and a timescale for magnetic pole reversals. The results of this model can be superimposed onto the observed seafloor magnetic profile in order to validate Hess’ theory of continental drift.

ELSIE LOUKIANTCHENKO AND ELIAS VITALI – MODELING MASSIVE PROTOSTAR MOVEMENT AND FORMATION THROUGH CELLULAR AUTOMATA

Cellular automata (CA) form a widely-used model system that allows for modelling many different disciplines including social psychology, physics, and biochemistry.  The model is based on a raster-like grid with each cell representing a single entity whose future state is determined by the nature of its surrounding cells. We focused on the applications of CA to astrophysics in the context of massive protostar formation. The aim was to model the size limits of star formation within galaxies, since mass varies depending on various factors, including radiative feedback and surrounding star clusters. CA simulates the formation of massive protostars in a two-dimensional polar field and allows for a firmer and more visual understanding of the physical forces involved in star formation. Through careful adjustment of parameters in a stochastic manner, CA was used to model stellar formation in massive galaxies and star clusters. This was done through a MATLAB model in which several rules and conditions were set based on already-existing scientific research; this includes but is not limited to gas-channeling onto protostellar accretion disks, radiative feedback, and simple Newtonian mechanics. Rules were defined using CA, and determined whether a star would grow, stay, or collapse. The model provides insight on the uncertainties behind star formation and estimating a cosmic size limit for massive protostars. Applications of this extend into the realm of General Relativity and astrophysical research including the search for exoplanets and the development of a Grand Unified Theory.

KATIE GRAHAM AND ALIA KHALED – THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL INHIBITORS AGAINST MALATE SYNTHASE IN CANDIDA ALBICANS 

To date, only two antifungal targets have been identified and approved for antifungal drugs. These target the synthesis of fungal cell walls; however, these drugs have been rendered merely useless due to increasing trends in antifungal resistance. One of the most prevalent species of fungi is Candida albicans, which frequently infects immunocompromised patients. In this study, a literature review was performed in order to identify potential inhibitors for malate synthase (MLS), an enzyme exclusive to the glyoxylate cycle in C. albicans. Further, an assay was proposed for these compounds based on the practices at the Centre for Microbial Chemical Biology at McMaster University.​

The proposed drug targets MLS, an enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. MLS catalyzes the reaction in which acetyl-coenzyme-A, water and glyoxylate are converted into coenzyme-A (CoA) and (S)-malate. To determine hit compounds, a target-based assay with a colourimetric change was proposed to measure the production of CoA. Through the addition of Ellman’s reagent, the assay quantified free thiol concentrations in solution with a colourimetric change at 412 nm detected by a spectrophotometer. Potential MLS inhibitor compounds with a low absorbance reading at 412 nm were considered hit molecules. Through the optimization of hit compounds found in this study, lead molecules can be developed as a new therapeutic for fungal infections.

AILEEN LIU AND MEGHAN CRAUGHWELL – HOW A MEDICAL MIRACLE EVOLVED INTO A HUMAN HAZARD: THE HISTORY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Antibiotics are widely used in agriculture, medicine and common everyday products; however, the overuse of antibiotics is correlated with the development of drug resistance. This growing medical concern has invoked fear in the public as it impairs our ability to effectively treat infectious diseases. The purpose of this study is to pinpoint the time in history when antibiotic resistance became a serious public health problem and how the misuse of antibiotics is a contributing factor in the evolution of resistance. We will investigate scientific advancements and government policies to understand controversies between scientists and industries while deducing trends from this information. Additionally, we will examine the mechanism of penicillin binding proteins, in order to explore antibiotic resistance on a molecular level.

Our deliverable will be in the form of a scientific magazine article accompanied by original artworks and photographs. We will showcase these artistic renditions to communicate facts as well as emphasize the major concerns surrounding this topic. The article will prompt readers to contemplate big questions regarding the topic of drug resistance, such as if the use of antibacterial products should be minimized, and if we are using antibiotics wisely, given that we understand its limitations and risks.

Antibiotic resistance may have serious consequences to human health in the future; therefore, this study aims to inform undergraduate students about the recent history of resistance and the mechanism by which the misuse of antibiotics in various industries can accelerate the development of resistance.

NOEL KIM AND URSZULA SITARZ – PAINTING HOW WE SEE

Science exists within society but unfortunately, scientists often communicate their research in a plain and confusing way. Visual representations are powerful communication tools in science for two reasons. First, they can make scientific knowledge more accessible. Second, they can foster a better relationship between scientists and society. We propose a novel method for effective visual communication in science. We have created a series of paintings that progresses through the visual system. The painting series together with the descriptions illustrate how we can use the anatomy of the visual system as a basis for effective techniques in visual communication. We address several stages of visual processing including photoreception in the retina, image processing in the primary and secondary visual cortex, and higher levels of visual processing throughout the brain. At each stage, we discuss elements of effective visual communication such as contrast, visual long-term memory, and emotional impact. The process of creating this painting series involved the transfer of scientific knowledge into an aesthetically pleasing piece. We will present both our research on the neural correlates of visual communication and our creative process. We aim to inform scientific researchers about how to use visual mediums to communicate science in an effective and exciting way to the general public.

JENEVA SMITH AND ALEXI DOAN – MODERN ISSUES REGARDING INFORMED CONSENT IN RESEARCH TRIALS & EXPERIMENTS

One of the key requirements in modern human-based research trials is for researchers to obtain informed consent from participants. This ensures that participants possess a comprehensive understanding of the procedures involved and all associated risks. However, there are many situations which complicate or invalidate the informed consent process and create complex ethical dilemmas. It is only through the identification of the problems associated with informed consent that the process can be improved. This report will identify both the problems associated with informed consent as well as the regulations mitigating them through an analysis of information from research papers and published clinical trials. Most problems associated with informed consent relate to vulnerable groups of participants. This report will specifically analyze several vulnerable populations, such as children and psychiatric patients, who may not be able to fully comprehend the scope of their agreement to understand the associated risks. Other vulnerable groups, including inmates and homeless people, are vulnerable to coercion and may be highly influenced by compensation. Additional problems surrounding informed consent, which will be addressed, involve the language difficulty used in consent forms and the intentional misleading of subjects that is characteristic of some psychological studies. All problems presented undermine the principle of informed consent and in many cases may infringe upon ethical regulations. To avoid this, a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of informed consent will be provided within this report.

VICTORIA COLES AND SOMMER CHOU – AN ANALYSIS OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE CLASS ANTIBIOTICS AND THEIR EFFICACY ON RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS

Antibiotic resistance is a growing societal problem that affects the global population. As the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increases at a rate that exceeds modern drug development, researchers find themselves struggling to combat this impending epidemic. Further research into the specific mechanisms of resistance is of utmost importance at this time.

This literature review provides insight into the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics and their efficacy on a variety of bacterial strains. The history of aminoglycosides, their mode of action, and various resistance mechanisms are discussed. Three particular antibiotics (streptomycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin) have been analyzed in greater detail. Additionally, this review is supported by experimental data, which highlights the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each antibiotic against two resistant strains and one susceptible strain of Escherichia coli. The MIC values generated were compared to positive and negative growth controls containing bacteria and growth media, respectively, in the absence of antibiotics. The differences in MIC values between each antibiotic were analyzed, providing information about the specific resistance mechanisms. Understanding the impact of these mutations is crucial in overcoming antibiotic resistance. Lastly, a variety of new research in the field of aminoglycoside resistance will be discussed, with a focus on the development of new antibiotics and small molecule inhibitors. This new research has the potential to bring about new antibiotics, lessening the impact of resistance on our society.

POSTER PRESENTATIONS – 2A18 – APRIL 3, 2017

MONICA TAKAHASHI AND JACQUELINE GARNETT – THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN R-SELECTED AND K-SELECTED SPECIES AND INVASION ECOLOGY

In terms of ecological succession, r-selected species tend to be pioneer species as they are the first to enter an area after a disturbance. Over time, K-selected species, often called climax species, migrate and dominate the community.  Although many K-selected species are able to establish themselves in an area that has previously been inhabited by r-selected species, most successful invasive species tend to have an r-selected life strategy. In order to understand this paradox, we will evaluate r/K selection theory and other contemporary life history models through a literature review. This will be supplemented with an agent-based visual model, using the modelling software NetLogo.  Our model will serve to assess invasion success dynamics based on r versus K selected life history strategies. Results obtained from the agent-based model will be analyzed with both quantitative and qualitative metrics. Through this study, we ultimately hope to achieve a deeper understanding of invasion biology dynamics, and how different life strategies may impact the ability of an organism to successfully invade an area.

AARON DE JONG, SABRINA MACKLAI, AND POOJA SREERANGAN – THE ROLE OF CLINICAL STATISTICIANS

Most areas of research require statistics to determine the significance of results obtained. Creating a statistical analysis protocol prior to data collection is an important consideration to help ensure the integrity of the results. It is therefore essential that researchers understand the statistical tests available and what methods within these tests may compromise the integrity of these results. The purpose of this report is to investigate various statistical methods used throughout clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, in connection to evidence based medicine (EBM). This report first describes the various statistical methods available to researchers, and then highlights key issues in the statistical process including the presence of bias and the stigma around non-significant results. To showcase the importance of these issues, different types of bias affecting statistics including publication and selection biases were highlighted along with the methods available to mitigate such bias. Finally, these statistical methods and corresponding issues were outlined briefly in their implementation in the medical field. These findings are presented as a literature review and include input from statisticians currently working in clinical research. This report may be used as a resource by researchers and students in the clinical setting to aid in their statistical planning by providing an overview of the current statistical system and drawing attention to potential pitfalls.

BRIAN YU AND NICOLE ZHANG – TYPE IV PILI INHIBITION AS AN ANTIBIOTIC, AND THE ASSOCIATED ASSAY

Antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly imminent threat since the mass production, misuse, and overprescription of antibiotics starting in the 1970s. Antibiotic resistance has become both an economic and clinical burden. It is necessary to implement new strategies to combat antibiotic resistance, by either developing new antibiotics or adjuvants that inhibit bacterial mechanisms that confer antibiotic resistance. Type IV pili (T4P) are bacterial fimbriae structures that are constructed with pilin monomers. T4P are implicated in several essential functions for bacteria, including attachment to host-cell membranes and inorganic surfaces, natural transformation of foreign genetic material, and biofilm formation. We have designed a high-throughput phenotypic assay for the purpose of drug screening, in order to identify natural small molecule inhibitors (less than 500 Da) of the formation of pilin IV multimers or biofilm formation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacteria model, was chosen due to its association with several hospital acquired infections and its rapid development of antibiotic resistance. The proposed assay will measure the spread and thickness of fluorescence-tagged biofilm in real-time, as a proxy for T4P functionality. If T4P experience reduced functionality due to the presence of potential small molecule inhibitors, we should expect to observe a patchier, thinner biofilm. Compounds that solely inhibit biofilm formation are of value as well, due to biofilm’s contribution to lung and catheter-associated infections. The development of a phenotypic assay for the monitoring of T4P formation will expedite future antibiotic drug discovery by providing a method to screen for novel T4P-inhibitory compounds.

PASCALE BIDER, TANYA DANIEL, AND ADAM TWEEDLE – REDEFINING INVASIVE SPECIES USING A STAGE-BASED PROCESS ​

Invasion ecology explores the impacts of new species entering established ecological niches and communities. While the effects of invasive species are frequently discussed in both industry and academia, the definition of invasion remains vague, arbitrary, and based on human perception. The objective of this project was to better define species invasion using a mechanistic, stage-based perspective. Several authors have attempted to develop a definition that focuses on the process of invasion, rather than on the characteristics of the potentially invasive species. This process encompasses three main stages: transport, establishment, and spread. The purpose of a stage-based definition is to classify a given species by its progression through the invasion process. By integrating existing definitions, we proposed a novel version of the stage-based process of invasion. This approach incorporates extrinsic factors such as competition, predation, and parasitism in addition to contingent physical forces such as flooding, freezing, and fire. Therefore, a wide variety of species will be able to fit in this definition. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we are applying our definition to two present cases of invasion in Ontario: Alliaria petiolata (Garlic mustard) and Agrilus planipennis (Emerald ash borer). Adopting a more comprehensive method for defining invasive species will allow for better communication within invasion ecology research and throughout the scientific community. Ultimately, our definition will help simplify the process of developing a practical invasion prevention policy that can be implemented at multiple stages for full effectiveness.

CORY KAWAMOTO – CLONING THE CANNABINOID2 RECEPTOR A START FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL DIABETES TREATMENTS

There are two known cannabinoid receptors ; cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2), which are G-protein coupled receptors. These receptors are stimulated by endocannabinoids , e.g. , anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Together, the CB1, CB2 and the endocannabinoids are the main components of the endocannabinoid system. This system is directly linked to insulin secretion through calcium dependent signaling. The overstimulation of the CB2 or the underexpression of CB2 on the beta cells is linked to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Thus, CB2 presents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel diabetes treatments.
In this theory based study, the CB2 will be cloned with the pET28a expression vector and will be transformed into E.coli DH5 α using heat shock. The recombinant DNA will be purified using DNA
isolation prep kit and will be transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) cells for expression. The CB2 will be extracted, purified using nickel NTA affinity chromatography and confirmed via SDS PAGE. The purified protein will be crystallized using the sitting drop method, thus through x-ray crystallographic analysis the physical structure of the CB2 can be examined. The binding of radiolabelled endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids to the receptor, helps screen for lead molecules. Development of functional assays will require further research. A rationale for cloning the receptor will be given and a detailed protocol of the cloning, expression and purification procedures will be outlined in a lab manual. A brief methods section will be written in JBC article style.

AMORY CONANT – A REVIEW OF PALEOENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS WITH A RECONSTRUCTION OF LATE QUATERNARY MASSACHUSETTS

As a result of continuous studies and investigations, there have been numerous recent advances in the field of Quaternary geology, including the development of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), the refinement of cosmogenic nuclide analysis, and improvements in varve chronology. A review of the state of paleoenvironmental analysis and reconstruction was conducted with a focus on reconstructing the late Quaternary progression of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, along with the generation of new visuals depicting spatiotemporal changes of the environment with ArcGIS.

Due to these advances, an updated overview of geographic regions such as Massachusetts is sorely needed. In order to construct a comprehensive analysis of paleoenvironmental evolution, the fields of geology, glaciology, paleoclimatology, and geoarchaeology were investigated with an emphasis on locating relationships between the fields. Through the mapping of data generated from individual studies in the various sub-disciplines, a reconstruction of consistent glacial retreat and a pattern of post-glacial succession followed by human inhabitation was achieved.

Throughout the review, debates over established paleoclimate theories were investigated, as were the development of new theories and investigatory techniques. Through the integration of multiple perspectives, an interdisciplinary model for paleoenvironmental analysis has been developed. This model can be applied to other past glacial environments as well as to modern locations, and can be used as a baseline for predicting the evolution of future environmental change.

AUDREY TAM, MEGAN SWING, AND TANYA JOSEPH – REVIEW OF ACE INHIBITORS AND THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION

Hypertension is a disease that affects hundreds of thousands of adults across Canada, and effective treatment requires educated patients and caregivers. Since initial discovery in the 1980s, several drugs have been tested to treat varying degrees of hypertension. Vasotec (Enalapril), Capoten (Captopril), and Lisinopril, are ACE inhibitors – a class of drugs that lower blood pressure by preventing the formation of angiotensin II, a hormone that normally causes vasoconstriction. These are some of the most effective and widely used drugs on the market today. ACE inhibitors differ in functional groups, chemical properties, and molecular targets, which will be investigated in this study. The aforementioned drugs will be compared in an infographic highlighting the short term and long term effects of each drug, potential side effects or other interactions, and the relationship between age and usage of each drug. This infographic may be used in a hospital or clinical setting to educate the general population, mainly targeting adults and seniors. It is important for Canadians to better understand different drugs and their effects on health and wellbeing. Using this infographic, patients can make informed decisions about the ACE inhibitor they choose to treat hypertension.

RACHAL BOLGER – HISTORY OF MOBILITY-ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

In Canada, approximately 22% of post-secondary students identify as a student with a disability (SWD), and this number is only expected to rise with the increase in assistive technologies available to bridge the gap between SWDs and their able-bodied peers. This project will investigate the history of mobility-assistive technology and its impacts in higher education (HE) exploring a cause and effect relationship that highlights historical barriers to participation and the solutions that overcame them. A variety of technologies from wheelchairs and service animals, to adaptive sporting equipment and exoskeletons will be explored as they pertain to HE. The applications of these technologies pertaining to mobility, collaboration, labs, social life, and athletics will be examined, as modern HE encompasses more than just access to the dissemination of information. This project connects to every aspect of HE, as the way students interact with their education influences the outcomes, benefits, social development, and learning opportunities they take away from it. Disabled students pose particular challenges to HE not only in terms of gaining physical access to buildings and extracurricular opportunities, but also in relation to much wider access issues concerning curriculum, teaching, learning, and assessment. Understanding the history of assistive technology is particularly relevant considering recent emphasis on initiatives aimed at widening access to HE for underrepresented groups, as understanding the past, is the key to unlocking the future of HE for SWDs.

JAROD COPPENS – ​THE THERMODYNAMIC LIMIT OF SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY

With the consequences of climate change becoming increasingly evident every year, the development of viable sustainable energy sources is arguably one of the most imperative technological endeavours of our time. Since its introduction in 20th century, the focus of solar energy research has shifted from the creation to the optimization of photovoltaics (PVs). The goal of this project is to investigate the different thermodynamic factors that limit solar cell efficiency and the consequential attempts to overcome these limits.

A literature review was conducted focused on the theory of solar energy generation and the endoreversible thermodynamic model for photovoltaics. From this model, the thermodynamic efficiency limits of solar PV energy conversion were determined from principles including the ultimate efficiency and Carnot’s theorem. Solar cell performance was analyzed under varying conditions to determine the effect of factors such as band gap energy and ambient temperature on efficiency. Single junction solar cells were the primary focus of this review, but some comparison was also made between other established PV designs attempting to overcome conventional efficiency limits, such as multijunction and thin film PVs.

In the past few decades, the use of photovoltaics has seen an exponential amount of growth.  Despite this, solar energy covers barely over 1% of global energy demand. Researchers are constantly working towards improving the design and efficiency of solar cells, increasing their viability for global use.

HELENA KONIAR AND ARIANA FRASCHETTI – THE ORIGINS OF LIFE ON EXOPLANETS

Many theories on the origins of life have evolved in the era of modern science. More recently, research interest in the life of planets outside of our solar system has become a rapidly growing field known as astrobiology. With NASA’s recent announcement of the discovery of seven Earth-sized exoplanets around a single star, it is clear that the search for planets capable of supporting life is an important piece in discovering the truth behind the origins of life.

This review summarizes and connects the current understanding of the evolution of life in other parts of the universe. It is generally accepted that life on Earth originated from an RNA world. The Miller-Urey experiment determined that amino acids can be synthesized abiotically. By applying currently accepted theories on the origins of life, the features of an exoplanet that affect its potential to host life are determined. Certain characteristics of planet Earth have been identified as ideal for hosting life, including size, albedo, atmospheric composition, and orbital eccentricity. For life similar to that on Earth to arise on other planets, these characteristics must be present. As exoplanets are discovered, this review can be applied to determine their viability for sustaining life.

GABRIELLA WYNN AND SONYA MARTIN – A QUANTUM APPROACH TO THE MONTY HALL PROBLEM

The Monty Hall problem is a probability puzzle with an unexpected result that has mystified people for decades. Mathematicians have studied this problem using game theory, an analysis that searches for the ideal outcome for the largest number of players. With the growing societal interest in quantum mechanics, game theory has come to incorporate quantum components, creating the field of quantum game theory. Using quantum game theory, additional quantum properties have been added to the Monty Hall problem, which changes the probability outputs. This paper analyzes the classical solution to the brain teaser by considering both theoretical and computational methods. Probability theories were discussed to understand the classical Monty Hall problem, and quantum game theory was incorporated into the classical model. Important concepts in quantum mechanics, such as the idea of a wave function, quantum entanglement, and quantum operators, were reviewed. Using these ideas, additional rules were added to the classical Monty Hall problem to create a fair game between the players. Python 3.6.0 was used to find probability outputs for both the classical and quantum adapted problem. The output for the classical version of the coded game matched the expected values from probability analysis.

Quantum game theory has become increasingly relevant to scientists as quantum mechanics is found throughout nature. As well, it is possible that in the future quantum game theory may be utilized by people in other fields, especially in areas such as cryptography and economics.

MONISH AHLUWALIA AND JACOB SAUNDERS – THERMODYNAMICS AS A BASIS FOR ECOSYSTEM MODELLING

As the knowledge and need for preservation of ecosystems increases, so too does the importance of effective metrics for ecological models. Ecosystems can be viewed as a transfer of energy from one organism to another. Energy, being intrinsic to all life, contains a wealth of information about biological processes. Unifying this idea with systems biology, we apply two thermodynamic concepts: exergy and emergy, to contemporary models in an attempt to better describe the flow of energy between species and the environment. Using cumulative energy measurements, these concepts attempt to represent the behaviour of systems. Exergy is used to acquire insight into the maximum potential work a system can perform. Conversely, emergy is focused on the quality of energy available. Using NetLogo, we present a model of a traditional aquatic ecosystem while applying these thermodynamic properties in order to measure energy transfer between trophic levels. In turn, we can determine key biological variables including carrying capacity, required trophic efficiency, and overall sustainability requirements for this and other similar systems. The model can be applied to both natural and artificial ecosystems to uncover theoretical, sustainable, and ecological extremes such as the extremities in number of organisms within a species and the maximum number of trophic levels within a food chain that can exist in a given environment.

BRONWYN BARKER AND MILA GILLES-ADELMAN – THE CO-EVOLUTION OF THE TREATMENT AND ACCEPTANCE OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN WESTERN SOCIETY

In the 21st century, mental illness and the associated stigma has become prominent in discourse among activists, physicians, and laypeople in Western countries. Mental illness has always been present in human society, although understanding of these illnesses has evolved. This paper discusses the history of treatments for mental illnesses, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and the associated attitudes of ancient to present day societies. In ancient civilizations, most doctors viewed all disorders, both mental and physical, as ailments treated by physical means. In contrast, many philosophers at the time believed a ‘diseased soul’ caused mental instability, making the individual sub-human as they did not have ‘full reason.’ The 18th century saw an increase in the number of asylums for individuals with mental illness as society moved away from the view that mental instability was a result of moral instability. During the 19th and 20th centuries western populations and economies grew with the industrial revolution, which resulted in an increase in the number of asylums. The asylums provided research opportunities and the medicalisation of mental disorders, as seen through the use of terms including ‘patient’ and ‘hospital’ as opposed to ‘inmate’ and ‘asylum.’ This highlighted the drastic change in attitudes towards patients with mental illness. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a shift in perspectives regarding the cause of mental illness from a natural response to social circumstances to a product of psychiatric disorders, which reflects today’s medicalisation of mental illnesses.