Sample Abstract Title (Bolded)
The Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive species that has invaded much of the temperature North America from China and Korea (National Resources Canada, 2013). These beetles are highly destructive, as they feed on the phloem of ash trees, often resulting in significant defoliation and tree death. Thus, they pose a threat to the diversity of invaded ecosystems, causing soil erosion, altered solar exposure and increased water temperatures in adjacent streams. Furthermore, ash trees are often used to provide shade in urban areas, resulting in an increase in property value. This study revisits research performed by Kyra Simone (2017) and explores the incidence level of the Emerald Ash Borer in the McMaster Forest. Using stratified random sampling techniques and a set of visual assessments, we determined which ash trees are infected, and assessed the degree of bark splitting on a 5-point scale in order to determine the state of tree health. In this study, it was determined that an increase in woodpecker damage and Emerald Asher Borer incidence is correlated to specific ecological regions of the forest. These results offer a method to analogously evaluate Emerald Ash Borer infestations in other areas of Southern Ontario and determine effective ways to reduce the level of invasion.